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Anorexia nervosa Definition Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder characterized by an unrealistic fear of weight gain, self-starvation, and conspicuous distortion of body image. The individual is obsessed with becoming increasingly thinner and limits food intake to the point where health is compromised. Telecharger encarta junior 2009 gratuite telecharger youtube pc.
The disorder may be fatal. The name comes from two Latin words that mean nervous inability to eat. Description Anorexia nervosa often is thought of as a modern problem, but it was first described by the English physician Richard Morton in 1689. Nevertheless, anorexia was not officially classified as a psychiatric disorder by the American Psychiatric Association until the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published in 1980. In the twenty-first century, anorexia nervosa is recognized as a serious problem particularly among adolescent females. Its incidence in the United States has more than doubled since 1970. The rise in the number of reported cases is thought to reflect a genuine increase in the number of persons affected by the disorder and not simply earlier or more accurate diagnosis.
Anorexia nervosa is a serious public health problem not only because of its rising incidence, but also because it has one of the highest mortality rates of any psychiatric disorder. Individuals with anorexia are irrational and unrelenting in their quest to lose weight. No matter how much weight they lose and how much their health is compromised, they want to lose more weight. Anorexia may cause serious long-term health complications, including congestive heart failure, sudden death, growth retardation, dental problems, constipation, stomach rupture, swelling of the salivary glands, anemia and other abnormalities of the blood, loss of kidney function, electrolyte imbalances, and osteoporosis. There are two major subtypes of anorectics. Restrictive anorectics control their weight by rigorously limiting the amount of calories they eat or by fasting. They may exercise excessively or abuse drugs or herbal remedies claim to increase the rate at which the body burns calories.
Purge-type anorectics eat and then get rid of the calories and weight by self-induced vomiting, excessive laxative use, and abuse of diuretics or enemas. About 95% of anorectics are female. It is estimated that one out of every 100-200 adolescent females meet all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for anorexia. However, it has been suggested that as many as 5% of adolescent females show some characteristics of the disorder but do not meet the full diagnostic criteria.
The rate among men is about 0.1%. About 85% of anorectics develop the disorder between ages 13 and 18; there is a secondary peak of individuals who become anorexic in their 40s.
Originally anorexia was thought to be primarily a disorder of white, upper-middle class girls, but now it is known to be found among all races and socioeconomic groups. The disorder, however, is not evenly distributed among pastimes or occupations. Women involved in gymnastics, figure skating, dance (especially ballet), cheerleading, acting, and modeling have a much higher rate of anorexia than the general population.
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Men involved in wrestling, gymnastics, cross-country running, and modeling have higher than average rates. The disorder is more often diagnosed in homosexual men than in heterosexuals. Causes and symptoms Anorexia is a disorder that results from the interaction of cultural and biological factors.
Research suggests that some people have a predisposition toward anorexic and that something triggers the behavior, which then becomes self-reinforcing. Hereditary, biological, psychological and social factors all appear to play a role. While the precise cause of the disorder is not known, it has been linked to the following: • Heredity. Twin studies show that if one twin has anorexia nervosa, the other has a greater likelihood of developing the disorder. Having a close relative, usually a mother or a sister, with anorexia nervosa also increases the likelihood of other (usually female) family members developing the disorder. However, when compared to many other diseases, the inherited component of anorexia nervosa appears to be fairly small. • Biological factors.